Haplogroup l1

Paternal Haplogroup l1 (yDNA)


Based on our Haplogroup, l1a1b1a1d.

Haplogroup I1 is the most common type of haplogroup I in northern Europe. It is found mostly in Scandinavia and Finland, where it typically represent over 35% of the Y chromosomes. Associated with the Norse ethnicity, I1 is found in all places invaded by ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings. After the core of ancient Germanic civilisation in Scandinavia, the highest frequencies of I1 are observed in other Germanic-speaking regions, such as Germany, Austria, the Low Countries, England and the Scottish Lowlands, which all have between 10% and 20% of I1 lineages.

From 2800 BCE, a large-scale cultural and genetic upheaval hit Scandinavia with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans from Eastern Europe, who introduced the Copper Age and Early Bronze Age to the region practically without Neolithic transition. The first Indo-Europeans to reach Scandinavia were the Corded Ware people from modern Russia, Belarus and Poland, who are thought to have belonged predominantly to haplogroup R1a, with a minority of R1b and I2a. These people shared some similar maternal lineages as Scandinavian I1 inhabitants, including mtDNA haplogroups U2e, U4 and U5, but also brought many new lineages such as H2a1, H6, W and various subclades of I, J, K and T.

The second major Indo-European migration to Scandinavia was that of haplogroup R1b-U106, the branch that is thought to have introduced Proto-Germanic languages, as an offshoot of the Proto-Celto-Germanic speakers from Central Europe. R1b probably entered Scandinavia from present-day Germany as a northward expansion of the late Unetice culture (2300-1600 BCE). The oldest known R1b sample in Scandinavia dates from the Nordic Bronze Age circa 1400 BCE

Clan Lyon is a Scottish clan of Anglo-Norman origin descended from Ingelram de Lyons, Lord of Lyons, who arrived in England with the Norman Conquest. The main Scottish branch descends from John Lyon, Lord of Glamis (c.1340-1382), who was Chamberlain of Scotland between 1377 and 1382. The clan chiefs later held the title of Lord Glamis (from 1445), Earls of Kinghorne (1606), and eventually Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne from 1677 to this day. The 9th Earl took his wife's surname (Bowes), and his descendants carried the hyphenated Lyon-Bowes or Bowes-Lyon patronym. The 14th Earl, Claude Bowes-Lyon was the father of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. Results from the Lyon(s) Surname DNA Project indicate that the aristocratic branch of Clan Lyon belongs to I1-L22 > Z2338 > P109 > S10891, a clade associated with the Viking migrations and the Normans. Several of the tested participants descend from the 4th Earl.

Based on the numerous results from the Gentis Grimaldorum DNA Project, the original House of Grimaldi, which inlcuded the Lords then Princes of Monaco until Louis II of Monaco (1870-1949), belonged to a Scandinavian branch of haplogroup I1-L22 > Y3549 > P109 > Y3662 > S14887. The House of Grimaldi also produced three doges of Genoa, a prince of Salerno, and several archbishops and cardinals. The current Princes of Monaco descend from the House of Polignac.